What you need to know:
- India is definitely committed to strengthening its relationship with Africa and its closer involvement in the G20 process.
- India’s G20 presidency offers an opportunity to make the forum truly representative by helping realise the African Union (AU’s) desire of permanent membership.
As the G20 summit approaches amidst a global turmoil, whether the African Union (AU) will be invited to just participate or also join as a member remains elusive.
India is definitely committed to strengthening its relationship with Africa and its closer involvement in the G20 process. This is also supported by civil society and business in India and Africa. Therefore, it is important to see how the international community can signal Africa of its commitment toward them in these difficult times.
India’s G20 presidency offers an opportunity to make the forum truly representative by helping realise the African Union desire of permanent membership.
The African Union, at its 2013 summit, adopted Agenda 2063 - a blueprint of its long-term transformation plan for the continent. Notable steps have been taken to institutionalise collective action and representation in certain areas.
AU platforms like the AU Committee for Climate Change are pursuing common goals in specific domains, which will have a bearing on Africa's interests. The AU is also working on implementing the African Continental Free Trade Area (AfCFTA) agreement, which will create one single market in the whole continent.
AfCFTA entered into force in May, 2019, and 46 of the 54 signatory countries have deposited their instruments of ratification.
Structural inequities in Africa
Africa's vulnerability during globally disruptive events like the Covid-19 pandemic and the ongoing Ukraine war, was laid bare. As observed in the last three years, people living in Africa have been disproportionately impacted by these events.
The existing international order failed to address this disparity and its frailty will stand exposed if a similar disruption follows in future. While such crises accentuate quickly in the continent, the share of assistance to have come from within Africa is relatively low.
It is a reflection of two of the structural inequities which characterise the continent. First, the impact of crises is more acute in Africa when compared globally, which means that the scale and urgency of assistance required are much higher.
Second, the capacity of actors within Africa is limited in the backdrop of the gigantic requirements. No African country figures in the list of the World’s 25 largest economies (measured by GDP).
India’s role in driving African Influence
There is some way to go before Africa becomes a leading voice on global issues. Though the African Union has been pushing to be a more active participant in the international fora, its ability to influence global outcomes continues to remain limited.
Regional groupings which have had an imprint on global affairs, have done so, while being driven by the individual strength of 2-3 countries. Hence, it is critical for individual countries to grow into actors of global relevance.
For the AU to have an influence on matters of global concern, it is important for countries like South Africa, Nigeria, Egypt and Kenya to focus on sustainable growth of their economies and invest in strategic partnerships.
Herein, India could play a vital role. In addition to its outreach to Africa as a whole, India must raise the level of bilateral engagements with the aforementioned countries. Investing political capital in bilateral partnerships with key states will help India in its pursuit of deeper engagements in Africa. India and Egypt elevated their relationship to the level of a strategic partnership, earlier this year.
Under this framework, the two countries agreed to raise the level of bilateral cooperation across four pillars - political & security matters, trade and economics, cultural affairs and scientific & academic partnerships. While South Africa is a permanent G20 member, Egypt and Nigeria are also among countries, which have been invited by India during its ongoing G20 presidency.
G20 permanent membership
Right from the outset, India has maintained that its G20 Presidency will accommodate concerns of the Global South, to steer an agenda which is Inclusive, Impactful and Action Oriented. The African Union, which has representation of 55 countries and makes up 20 per cent of the world’s population, must be accorded a permanent place in major multilateral forums.
While India has extended an invitation to the AU chair among other international invitees, the time has come to revamp the G20’s structure to make it truly representative. India, in its role as the G20 chair, must support the AU’s efforts to become a permanent member of the G20 as the European Union is.
While participation of individual invitee states from Africa is welcome, the AU’s permanent presence would give a fillip to G20’s core understanding of concerns of the Global South. These first-hand insights that AU can bring will enable platforms like the G20 to incorporate appropriate policy inputs.
The idea of AU’s G20 membership is also attracting global attention. President Joe Biden of the US called on the G20 to include the AU as a permanent member, on the side-lines of the US-Africa Leaders’ Summit in December, 2022.
China, too, has supported the idea of the AU’s bid to join the G20 at various platforms - including at the G20 leaders’ summit in Bali, in November, 2022. As calls for the AU’s increased participation grow louder, India must take the lead and integrate the AU in global decision-making processes by steering the latter’s permanent G20 membership.
Mehta is the Secretary General of CUTS International, Jaipur and Misiani Mwencha is Board Member of CUTS Centre for Trade, Economics and Environment in Nairobi. Jayesh Mathur of CUTS International contributed.