What you need to know:
- Prolactin is the hormone that causes milk production and can interfere with your cycle.
- This could be due to a problem with the pituitary gland in the brain causing prolactin overproduction.
For years, I have not been getting menses unless I take everyday pills (femiplan). Once I stop, the menses disappear. Also, my breasts produce a milky substance when pressed. What could be the problem?
The lack of natural menses and the production of breast milk are most likely due to high prolactin levels. Prolactin is the hormone that causes milk production and can interfere with your cycle. This could be due to a problem with the pituitary gland in the brain causing prolactin overproduction. Other hormonal disorders may also be causing the lack of natural menses.
You may also get milk production as a result of an underactive thyroid, chronic kidney disease, nerve damage, medications (for instance, some sedatives, anti-depressants, anti-psychotics, hypertension medication, opioids, hormonal medication), and some herbal supplements like anise, fennel and fenugreek. It is also possible to induce production of breastmilk through repeated stimulation, either with the hands, by sucking or by using a breast pump. This is possible even in someone who has never been pregnant.To avoid milk production, avoid breast stimulation (pulling, pinching, and sucking) and avoid clothes that have a lot of friction between your nipples and the fabric.
Visit a doctor for a gynaecological exam, physical breast exam and an ultrasound scan. Other tests include examining the discharge, pregnancy test, prolactin levels, brain MRI scan and checking for other disorders. Treatment will depend on the findings. If no underlying problem is found, there are medications to reduce the prolactin levels in the body if necessary, to stop the milk production and hopefully restore the menstrual cycle.
My name is Victor, a 25-year- old football player. Recently, I have been having a sharp pain at the muscle above the patella, and actually I was not knocked, what might be the problem?
Thanks in advance
Pain above the patella (knee cap) can be due to tendonitis, bursitis or arthritis. Tendonitis is irritation or inflammation of the tendon, which is the end of the tissue connecting the muscle (in this case the quadriceps muscle) to the bone. Quadriceps tendonitis can occur due to overuse of the muscle because of high intensity, prolonged duration or high frequency of exercise or due to poor form/alignment during exercise. It can also occur due to poor flexibility or use of inappropriate foot wear or due to obesity. There is a higher likelihood of getting the inflammation if you have another underlying chronic illness. Quadriceps tendinitis causes pain, warmth, swelling and/or joint stiffness. You need to be evaluated by a doctor for physical examination, and an x-ray or MRI scan done. Treatment involves rest, anti-inflammatory medication, knee support, physical therapy, and stretching and strengthening exercises. Surgery may also be done if necessary.
Another possible cause of pain above the patella is bursitis. A bursa is fluid-filled sac found near the knee that help reduce friction between the muscles, tendons, ligaments and bone. If the bursa gets inflamed (bursitis), then there is pain above the knee when walking or bending the leg. Treatment includes anti-inflammatory medication, rest and physical therapy. Surgery may be done if needed.
You may also have pain due to arthritis, if the cartilage supporting the bone wears away, and there is increased friction between the bones. This is treated with anti-inflammatory medications, and injections if necessary. It would be advisable for you to rest your lower limb for now, and avoid soccer until the source of the pain is identified and treated.
I am Richard
I am requesting for your medical assistance towards this type of disease that has lasted for two years now. I have tried Fucicort and Fanbact cream but all in vain. Kindly assist me in any way that you can.
This is most likely folliculitis barbae, which means inflammation of the hair follicles due to infection. After shaving, as the hair is growing back, the hair either re-enters the skin at the skin follicle or the sharp tip of the hair pierces the skin follicle before it even grows out of the skin to become visible. This causes the area to become inflamed, causing itching, redness and swelling. Sometimes, it also gets infected, causing more swelling and pain, and production of pus. The infection may also get into the deeper layers of the skin causing scarring and areas of permanent hair loss. This can happen anywhere where the hair is shaved or plucked, including the scalp, the face, the armpits, the groin and the legs.
It is more common in people with curly hair, and in men, but it can also occur in women.
The simplest treatment is to let the hair grow, or only trim it, without shaving completely. Also, shave in the direction of the hair follicle, not against it, after softening the hair first in the shower or with a hot wet cloth. The ingrown hair in the bump can be removed gently with tweezers. Some creams can help reduce the inflammation like steroid creams, acne medications, antibiotic creams or tablets in case of infection. Metal hair clippers and electric razors should be sterilised. You may also consider other hair removal methods such as chemical depilatory agents or laser hair removal.
Since you have had the problem for two years despite trying different medications, it would be advisable for you to visit a skin specialist (dermatologist.
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